Glossary

This tool is used to diagnose and assess autism spectrum disorder. The ADOS was created in 1989 by Catherine Lord, Ph.D.; Michael Rutter, M.D., FRS; Pamela C.DiLavore, Ph.D.; and Susan Risi, Ph.D. The second edition was released in 2012. It is the “gold standard” for autism diagnosis.

Autism spectrum disorder is the name given to a set of neurodevelopmental disorders. Common symptoms include difficulties with communication and social situations, repetitive behaviors, and restricted interests. Symptoms vary widely among individuals with autism. If you know one person with autism, you know one person with autism.

(Short for biological marker) A biomarker is a distinct biochemical, genetic, or molecular characteristic or substance that indicates a particular biological condition or process. “Biomarkers may be used alone or in combination to assess the health or disease state of an individual.”

A branched-chain amino acid is an amino acid with a central carbon bound to three or more carbon atoms (an aliphatic side-chain with a branch). The name of the amino acid has to do with its chemical structure. The three BCAAs are leucine, isoleucine, and valine.

NeuroPointDX conducted its autism clinical study, the Children’s Autism Metabolome Project (CAMP), at eight sites across the country. Over 1,100 patients enrolled, which makes CAMP the largest study to explore the connection between autism and metabolism. Learn more about CAMP.

The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-Revised (M-CHAT-r) is “a scientifically validated tool for screening children between 16 and 40 months of age that assesses risk for autism spectrum disorder.” The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends autism screening for all children 18-24 months old; the M-CHAT-R is among the tools the AAP recommends. The M-CHAT is a questionnaire for parents concerning a child’s development and behavior.

A microbe is a microorganism; a germ. The term is often used to describe a bacterium that causes disease.

A metabolic imbalance occurs when the body’s metabolites are out of balance with each other. Many factors—including genetics, illness or disease, and environment—may influence the metabolome (the complete set of metabolites in one’s body).

The levels of metabolites differ between individuals. A metabolic signature is the unique metabolic profile of an individual.

Metabolism is “the chemical and physical processes by which a living thing uses food for energy and growth.”

Substances formed in, or necessary for, metabolism are called metabolites. The complete set of metabolites in the body is the metabolome.

Metabolomics is the study of small molecules called metabolites found in our cells, fluids, or tissues.

A metabotype is a group of people who have similar metabolism.

A child who has achieved developmental milestones like walking and talking on a similar schedule to the majority of children within the same culture can be described as typically-developing. Children who miss developmental milestones may be considered developmentally delayed.